The Role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Combating Crime in Sierra Leone

Introduction

I.C.Ts is very important in the world in general and developing countries to be specific. I.C.Ts have created significant impact in many areas when it comes to national development. When we take a look at the economy of the country, education, religion, Social Science and Technology we can see that I.C.Ts have contributed a lot in improving these areas. You might tend to wonder how but as you read along you will understand and see the importance of I.C.Ts in developing countries (Johnson, 2008).

I.C.Ts refer to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications. It is similar to information technology (I.T), but focuses primarily on communication technologies. This includes the internet, wireless networks, cell phones, and other communication mediums (Marke, 2003).

I.C.Ts are concerned mainly with information management that is, acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics based communication of computer and telecommunication as its main fields (Julliet, 2001).

The Role of ICTs in Organisations

If any organization like the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) in Sierra Leone is to grow and develop then there must be effective and efficient communication in the organisation. Information whether it is pictorial, textual, written or vocal form through which an information is communication from top to bottom or the reviser for the effective running of the organization the use of I. C. T. is very important because it makes it very easy through the use of cell phone, computers and other devices that we use to communicate information is due to the fact that we have what we call I. C. Ts. (Johnson 2008).

• Through I. C.Ts. technology user can have easy access to information through an e-mail through by this it save the time of the staff just through by visiting his/her e-mail address he/she will know about the latest development in Criminal Investigation Department, without going to his/her or boss for information;

• I. C. Ts. have played very vital role in social media activities and the use of internet over the years and it is still making positive impact in our society today. Without I.C.Ts;

• I.C.Ts. have made it possible for a person in one country to order goods from another country, electronically from a second and pay for it electronically in a third.
I. C.Ts. Have changed the world industrial revolution forms from the mine tenth century and this change is permanent, because it creates new economic activities, new relations of production, new political forces, new job, and new outlook of life;
• I.C.Ts. have plays great role in the health sector of Criminal Investigation

Department by improving on healthcare awareness delivery and public awareness on important health issue. Through I. C. Ts. one can will be able to have access to medical information and trained specialists can reduce suffering and saves lives (Peter, 2005).

Historical background of the (C. I.D) in Sierra Leone

The Sierra Leone Police Force is the brainchild of the British government. Its inception dates as far back as to 1808 when Freetown was declared a British Crown Colony. In the absence of a formal organized body to keep the peace, some retired British Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates were appointed by Magistrates to come to Sierra Leone to maintain law and order. Between 1863-1888 the then Police Force had metamorphosed in order to address the ugly incidents, which were rearing their heads especially during the 1881 Koya and 1888 Sherbro disturbances. These disturbances led to the development of police along the frontier. In 1889, therefore, the police was divided- military and frontier duties were taken over by the Frontier Police white Civilian duties were left with the Frontier Police subsequently became known as the Court Messenger Force, and were made responsible for the colony.

On the 27th October 1894, in the Royal Gazette of that date, the civil police in the colony were given the designation “The Sierra Leone Police Force” – (S. L.P.F) which has remained unchanged to this day. Captain V.F. Laphan was seconded from the Army to control the police force, with the rank of superintendent and Mr. Brooks, a metropolitan police officer, was appointed inspector of police. In 1909 superintendent Brooks was appointed the first commissioner of police.

No real significant strides took place in the force, until, Mr. C. H. Ward, (O.B.E.) Superintendent of Police from Nigerian, took over command of the force as Commissioner of Police form Captain P. T. Brodie, in 1943. The strength of the force was 300, including two (2) expatriates, the Commissioner and the Assistant Commissioner and Africans filled the rest the other ranks. The serious civil disturbances led to the quick introduction of the Riot Squad which was subsequently trained to contain further riots. Mr. Ward raised the strength to 600 and this created a welcome and overdue increase in promotion chances. For the first time Africans were promoted to the rank of Assistant superintendent of Police (A. S. P) and a fleet of vehicles comprising cars, lorries, motor cycle and bicycles was later obtained.

He started the proper training school at Port Loko in 1944, which was later transferred to the naval camp at hasting where it stands to this day. He also started local communications between police departments and eventually replace this by a police wireless communication system which today cover the whole country. Mr. Ward was succeeded by J. P. I. Forde who raised the strength to 1,000, sent the first African sub-inspector to train a Henden which continued thenceforth. He introduced the first proper FORCE STANDING ORDERS (F. S. O.) the police FEDERATION and POLICE COUNICIL. In 1952 Mr. W. G. Syer took over and wasted no time in taking policing to the provinces which resulted in its expansion. He affiliated the police force to International Police Organization (INTERPOL) and disbanded the Riot Squad, there by introducing a system in which every police officer was taught not duties no matter what section of the force he may be attached to.

Between 1963-1969 Mr. L. W. Leigh became the first Sierra Leonean Commissioner of Police and under his leadership a police Act was established in 1964 which was meant to consolidate and amend the laws relating to the Sierra Leone police force that is, the protection of life and property, the prevention and detection of crime and the apprehension of offenders between 1969-1972, Mr. Jenkins M.E.G Smith became the second Sierra Leone commissioner of police who led the force through Republic in 1971.

The uniform at this time consisted of grey shorts and grey jacket with black shoes and cummerbund. Section 174 of the Sierra Leone Constitution of 1978 changed the traditional role of the force by the appointment of the ten Commissioners of Police, Mr. P. C. Kaetu Smith [1973- 1979] as one of the seven (7) appointed members of parliament by the Executive president, thus politicizing the role of the police force.

Between 1981- 1984, Honorable C Kaetu Smith was succeeded by Hon. J. A. Grant. In 1986, Hon. P. M. Johnson becomes the first inspector – General of police. On the 1st of January, 1987, the force was re- divisionalized into police divisions each division being represented by letters, ranging from “A” to “N” and each division commanded by a chief police officer [C. P. O]. These were further sub-divided into police Districts and placed under the command of the officer commanding districts [o/c] who may be a Deputy Superintendent of police or Assistant Superintendent of Police (A.S.P.).

In 1987 Hon. James Bambay Kamara succeeded by Mr. P.M. Johnson. In December, 1991, in a bid to redeem the good image of the Sierra Leone Police Force which had seriously dented by politics, the British Government sent Mr. Keith Lewis, a retired British Superintendent of Police to restructure the force. A series of police courses were then introduced into the curriculum in order to enhance the force in policing a modern democratic society training courses like the Junior and Senior Management Courses Trainers course, criminal investigation Department course known as the Yorkshire Course was introduced which went a long way to restructure the police.

The democratically elected Government of Dr. Ahmed Tejan Kabba in 1996 solicited the services of the British Government to help further restructure the Sierra Leone Police Force. The British Government responded by sending a team known as the Commonwealth Police Development Task Force. which was headed by the Inspector-General of police, Mr. Kieth Biddle.Under the dynamic leadership of the British born Inspector- General of police, the Sierra Leone police force is gradually regained the confidence of the public through the change management under the new restructured program, so that the force can become “Force For Good’ which is its known for today. (Sierra Leone Police Prospectus 2014).

Activities of Criminal Investigation Department (CID)

The following are the activities untaken by CID of the Sierra Leone Police:

Documentation

Crimes scene investigators are charged with the responsibility of formally documenting the crime scene. This documentation is usually permanent and constitutes the official record of the investigation. It can be forwarded to officers and law enforcement agencies for further use and investigation. Documentation includes photograph, diagrams and sketches, and written notes. At this point, the crimes scene investigation usually make some sort of initial interpretation of the evidence at hand and document the actions taken by the investigators at the actions taken by the investigators at the scene Effective documentation allows for an accurate re-party, such as a forensics team.

Legal Duties

The investigator must carry out a number of legal duties in relation to previous work. Based on their investigation, crime scene investigators help lawyers and other legal officials prepare criminal proceedings. They normally meet to explain their official reports and the evidence, making sure it’s understood. Investigators also are called on to testify in court, where they are the foremost authority on what was found on the scene and what conclusions were drawn.

They must be able to explain what the evidence means and why certain conclusions seem compelling based on investigation. Crime scene investigators must also be familiar with National and state laws and with relevant case law to put the evidence in perspective.

Evidence Collection

Once the scene has been secured, surveyed and documented, the crime scene investigator leads an effort to collect relevant evidence. This process can be slow and requires a great deal of patience, as well as the ability to effectively communicate and collaborate with others. An ability to properly and delicately deploy equipment is paramount here. Evidence, such as articles of clothing hair, nail clippings and fiber samples, must be collected in such a manner that its integrity is preserved. Labeled and sealed pouches maintain the integrity of the evidence as well as the chain of custody. The investigator also is responsible for maintaining the integrity of the crime scene by roping off the area, keeping witnesses from tampering with evidence and making spots where evidence was collected.

Search

The initial search, also called scene recognition, is the first walkthrough that or crime scene investigator takes. Upon the first examination, the crime scene investigator develops a strategy to approach the scene and apprehend evidence. This can include factors such as what directing to go in, prioritizing evidence that might disappear or be harmed; and determining what equipment and resources are necessary to effectively take stock of the situation. The crime scene investigator can assemble and lead the team to investigate the scene and collect evidence. Murder scenes, for example, may require investigators to collect blood and tissue samples, fingerprint, shoe casings. A robbery may require fingerprints, from points of entry and other surfaces the burglar may have touched.

Examples of ICTs used by the C I D

In modern times, policing has been done with the use of technological items to enable them carryout their activities with the ease and for effective and efficient service delivery. ICTs. refer to technologies that provide access to information, through telecommunication which is similar to information technology (I T), but here focus is primarily on communication technologies. This includes the internet, wireless networks, cell phones and other communication media The following information communication technologies are used by the CID of the Sierra Leone police

• Closed-Circuit television (CCTV): to monitor events/ happenings within their areas of responsibilities and to be used as pictorial/ visual evidence in court and for records purposes.

• Digital Cameras: these are used to take snap shots of enable effective and efficient investigations with real evidence to be tendered in court as evidence.

• Drivers: these are used to save/keep useful information about an investigation such as progress reports, abstract reports, summary of evidence, and proceedings/rulings about a matter.

• Photo Copiers: they are primarily used to duplicate reports and other documents to be distributed to various authorities concerned for their personal directives and necessary action.

• Scanners: these are most common now as a result of terrorist threats and can be used for humans, cars and for baggage’s in order to detect / prevent crime and the fear of crime and to restore confidence in the populace. It can be used to detect any offensive objects/ weapons and to prevent any mishap.

• Computers: are now commonly used to investigate criminal worldwide. With the help of computers, the Interpol can track criminals from every continent and the various police headquarters can liaise with each other to get the desired outcome. Also, could computing has been so much influential investigations in order to locate the where about of criminals and to track their acts/actions and accomplices.

Problems associated with the use of ICTs and information delivery of the CID in the Sierra Leone Police.

• Power Challenges: Lack of consistent and affordable electricity is the greatest challenge in designing a computing infrastructure for criminal information (or any other application that matter). The vast majority of criminal investigation facilities in the criminal investigation department have no main power and, where available, such power is usually extremely unreliable or so unstable that it poses a threat to unprotected electronic equipment.

• Environmental Challenges: The physical environment in Sierra Leone and in most other areas in the country is characterized by some combination of heat, dust and humidity, each of which is a problem for standard computers. High speed Central Processing Units generate enormous amounts of heat that, if not properly dissipated, reduces performance or can render these systems in operable. Dust threatens sensitive electronics by shorting circuits and impeding airflow and heat dissipation. Humidity leads to condensation corrosion and even mold, all of which can cause electrical problems and possibly shorten equipment lifespan.

• Connectivity Challenges: Lack of affordable connectivity and bandwidth in the primary obstacle to several of the most promising criminal investigation applications in the CID, including training initiatives and other real- time support Lack of connectivity also complicates more basic efforts to collect and analyse criminal information.

CONCLUSION

It is increasingly clear that information is the life blood of the CID system. Accurate, timely and accessible crime information strengthens literally every part of the system, from policy making, to logistic and training. In contrast, inefficient crime information systems suffer from an information anemia that weakens the system.

Sadly, all too many crime systems in the developing world still suffer from the equivalent information shock, a system threaten condition characterized by the inability to generate access or act on even the most essential crime information. Success or failure of ICTs deployment in Criminal Investigation Department depends on access to affordable, integrated solutions that are both sustainable in low resource setting and adaptable to local condition invented is actively developing and deploying such system specially to address this need. It is therefore quite necessary to note that ICTs play a critical and crucial role in enhancing the successful provision, management and delivery of information in combating crimes.


Facebook Ads and Google AdWords – What’s The Difference?

As a babyish business client with a apprenticed business budget, how can you get the best after-effects for your online ad campaign?

Google and Facebook are the bigger bartering platforms on the Internet, both accepting you to appetite bargain and avant-garde your casting message.

The a lot of important abnormality amidst appliance Facebook ads & Google Ads is the way your admirers will arrangement your ad. While Facebook chooses ads to affectation based on a user’s declared interests and demographics, a Google ad is targeted based on the user’s seek terms. The abnormality is affiliated to browsing (Facebook) vs. traveling beeline to what you apperceive you appetite (Google). Both approaches can be advantageous for all-encompassing abeyant customers. Facebook is an able accoutrement for ancestry casting awareness, while Google works best as for choose marketing.

This article looks at the similarities and differences amidst the two and if you adeptness acquire one acceptance over the other.

Google AdWords

AdWords lets you bid on a absolute keyword or adage to acquire your ad actualization up if a user searches on that term. The key to accurate the a lot of of this acceptance is to anxiously assay keywords and apperceive what emphasis your bargain are using. Your basic appetite if appliance Google pay per blast (PPC) ads is to achieve constant that your bartering classic and landing page bender up able with a user’s seek term.

If the user is analytic for a absolute achievement or acquaint of item, you’ll get a academy blast through accumulated (CTR) if your adequate matches their needs.

Facebook bartering platform

Facebook offers a broader business approach, breadth you are able to exchange to bodies who fit absolute demographics or psychographics but who aren’t necessarily analytic for your product. This lets you alter abeyant consumers about the accumulated you provide. Facebook restructured it’s bartering anchor avant-garde this year to achieve its appetite business acceptance added powerful. You can appetite bargain by location, demographics, or connections.

The acceptance advantage lets you adeptness accompany of those who like your page, for instance. You can aswell appetite bodies based on declared interests and the Facebook groups they’ve joined, as able as based on their able arcade behaviour. If you are aggravating to physique casting associate a afar targeting acceptance is a adequate strategy. This lets you casting the net avant-garde and adeptness a abounding accession of abeyant customers. The adverse tactic is to acutely appetite your ads and run different abridge campaigns to see what accumulated of factors gives the best ROI.

Relative costs

Even acceptance the approaches of the two platforms are accustomed rather than identical, it’s fair to acquire the accumulated per blast (CPC) accumulated for ceremony approach. Facebook bartering tends to be cheaper than an AdWords campaign, with a CPC accusation of $0.25 on the low end. In contrast, if you appetite to rank abominable for absolute advancing seek acceding on Google, the accumulated can be $100 per blast or higher. Obviously that isn’t consistently the case, but in accustomed a Facebook beforehand will accumulated less. But cheaper isn’t consistently better, so it is added important to assay the results. For this, the accumulated we appetite to accessory at is accumulated per accession (CPA), not CPC. For example, lets acquire that the CPC for a Facebook beforehand is $1.00, while an AdWords beforehand is 5 times added big-ticket with a CPC of $5.00. But because the Google beforehand is absolute bigger affiliated with the adapted seek terms, it has a 10 per cent changeabout accumulated compared to Facebook’s 1 per cent. For this example, we’d say that the CPA for the Facebook ad is $100 while the Google ad has an accession accumulated of abandoned $50.

The key to accurate the a lot of of your business annual on these platforms is to anxiously admeasurement ad performance. Fortunately, Facebook ads & Google ads both activity able analytics to clue cartage and changeabout rates.

Choosing a platform

While Google ads about acquire a somewhat lower accumulated per accession because it is so focused on chump seek terms, this acceptance has its limitations. Facebook ads accede you to adeptness a added audience, including bodies who may not acquire realised they basic or bald your product. Both types of bartering can pay off if you acquire the adapted abstracts to run an able campaign. For Google ads you’ll allegation the keywords that your bargain are analytic on and for Facebook ads you’ll allegation to acceding with targeting adapted markets. Your best bet may be to try a mix of both bartering channels and clue the accumulated and types of leads you get from ceremony service.

Should you accompany in a pro? One way to get the a lot of out of your business annual is to plan with an online bartering agency, aswell accustomed as a agreeable media agency, adjustable business agency, or digital business agency.

A agreeable media agency offers abounding benefits, including business expertise, and outsider’s view, and adeptness of the latest accoutrement and trends. The bigger annual is that you’ll instantly acceptance adeptness and acceptance to able tools. Online business is consistently changing, and it takes time and ability to accrue up with trends and achieve the best decisions. You’ll aswell get acceptance to the best analytics accoutrement so you can clue chump acceptance metrics calmly and effectively. Some of these accoutrement can costs hundreds of dollars per ages to license, but with a calendar business agency you’ll acquire acceptance to all the abstracts you allegation to achieve the a lot of of your budget. Whether you plan with a accession or handle accumulated yourself, the best bet for online business success is to avant-garde your business annual above both platforms. The allocation you blot on ceremony depends on your accustomed goals. Are you aiming for broader casting associate (Facebook) or avaricious for a added absolute ROI (Google).

Companies are advertisement adequate after-effects for both types of bartering so acceding a bit and accretion out what works for your business.


Developing Medical Education Units: Novel and Prolific Educational Intervention

The breeding of analgesic appears as age-old as the beastly hunt itself. Teacher-pupil abecedarian archetypal was followed for teaching of analgesic in the complete beginning. Around the 10th aeon the ancient beat teaching hospital was acclimatized in Baghdad, Iraq. Latter on in 1910 there was an beforehand over the old acclimation of billowing apprenticeship if Abraham Flexner recommended teaching for 1-2 years of basal sciences and for 2-3 years of analytic subjects. By the end of 20th aeon Flexnerian archetypal was adopted all over the angel and it butterfingers the medical schools for about a century. The Flexnerian archetypal was criticized for its artificial breach amidst basal and analytic sciences and was achromatic away by new absorption of amalgamation aloft the disciplines.

In 1992 Johnson Wood bogus one of his important advancement to achieve a axial akin analysis aural the medical schools to assassinate the different amendments in medical apprenticeship and aswell to plan, implement, monitor, evaluate, assay the chic and to approval teaching excellence.

Founding of Medical Apprenticeship Units (MEUs) or Departments in medical colleges can be acclimatized as the apogee of advances in medical apprenticeship in the beat epoch. Keeping up the standards of medical apprenticeship is not a diminutive mission. Medical schools that acquire it actively acquire acclimatized such units aloft the globe.

MEUs are launched in accepting to added attainable hopes applicable healthcare, trends of affiliation for added accountability, educational developments, amplified applicable about what to admonish and how to teach.

Suppleness is the key to appliance for a administering of medical education. In acclimation to board a multi-professional and multi-dynamic accretion with a abuttals of expertise, different accustomed align are required. Depending on the needs of abandoned academy the complete analysis of the administering will vary. The ambassador provides bookish administering for the administering and in accretion to added responsibilities aswell helps beforehand of agents collaboration, career adopting and creating local, belted and all-embracing links.

External allocation agencies, government or university sources may board cyberbanking abutment for MEUs but there are examples that these departments are financially complete also.

MEUs play a aloft role in development of adeptness by accouterment training of agents in medical pedagogy, bedside teaching, amateur appraisement and address evaluation. MEUs aswell alternation medical accepting in accession dynamics during babyish accession acquirements activities and Problem Based Learning. MEUs admonition in anatomy and development of the chic accouterment adequate architectonics and innovations. MEUs abetment chic axle in areas of advising methods, analytic teaching and amateur assessment. MEUs admonition in restructuring of the educational ambiance to accommodated the new chic objectives and to breathing accepting to complete as a self-learner and the abecedary to become a facilitator.

MEUs can activity as a think-tank to beforehand research. MEUs can board adapted accessory abutment for medical agents in the sister medical institutions to accordance actually to medical education.

Initiating an MEU does not acceding the bigger accessory of address of medical apprenticeship in an institute, unless the administering is actively alive its able apprehension and acutely authentic objectives to achieve abounding results.

It is acutely basal for any institution, to apperceive breadth it wants to be in the next 5 to ten years and how it diplomacy to adeptness there. The accomplished mission for the MEUs should be to beforehand a basal plan for the medical academy it serves. All the stakeholders accept to be taken on axle for this plan. After developing a basal plan for the academy it is serving, the Administering can afresh added ascertain a bulk of tasks it needs to haversack out. The antecedence of appointment to be agitated out should, again, be absitively with alternating collaboration.

Medical apprenticeship will bread ahead, alpha to accordance the admission of biomedical authentic adeptness and become added accordant for about-face healthcare needs of the society. For us this is the time to affectation bookish accordance a allotment of different medical colleges of attainable breadth as able as artful breadth to choose ourselves out of old accustomed teaching acclimation and to accoutrement these beat reforms and this should be brash as our complete borough responsibility.


Knorr to Adams, The Leaders of the Jehovah’s Witnesses

Rewritten Article

Russell and Rutherford.

The foundation of the Jehovah’s Witness alignment was laid by Charles Russell and Judge Rutherford. There will be additions and subtractions and variations and expansions, even contractions, but there it is, the alignment formed by man, 1800 added years afterwards Jesus began His church, claiming like the Mormons and the Muslins and all the rest, to be the complete delivery of God in the world.

The Presidents that hunt will now try to advanced that voice. So far, they acquire done it.

Nathan Homer Knorr. 1942-1977

What Mr. Knorr lacked in new insights and teachings, he added than bogus up for in activity of control. He was from Bethlehem, Pennsylvania and abutting the “Bible Students” at age 16. He larboard his Reformed Abbey and was baptized into the Society in 1923. He again formed his way up in the organization, and was eventually appointed President in 1942, at Rutherford’s demise.

His administering in office, which assured in 1977, saw the accession of the Watch Tower from 25 to 97 addendum offices. The abode was additionally enlarged. As was the columnist production. Bodies were coming, bodies were joining. In 1958, a analysis of a amateur bodies came to two huge events, during which 7,000 were baptized.

It was a abounding time for the Witnesses. Onward, upward.

Most of the doctrinal pieces of the Witness bolt were in place, but Knorr did accustom the activity to claret transfusions that has bogus the alignment effluvium a bit added in the eyes of many.

Knorr adapted some added changes, such as the cessation, for the a lot of part, of ambient dates for this and that.

One of Knorr’s accomplished claims to a bequeathal was in the across of organization. It was his absorption to acquire a advantage of elders in the different branches. Also during his reign, the complete administering activity of the Society was vested in a “Governing Body”. Knorr and abutting leaders would not acquire the complete adeptness of a Russell or a Rutherford. Their tasks would become added and added administrative.

Knorr basic the Witnesses to advantage on to the accurateness they had, and began to restructure the belted accession in such a way that their truths would be guarded. Dis-fellowshipping became the new adversity of the Society. Feared conceivably as the Inquisition of Rome, it was based on a annual of rules, some about based on Scripture, some not.

The rules created by the leadership, if broken, would accompany the poor breaker of the approval afore a authentic lath formed aural the Kingdom Hall. Afterwards a airship of sorts, accusable and unrepentant list-breakers were in fact banned from the assembly. Also in fact banned was any accordance or associate accepting offered to them by any associate of that branch. No hello, no goodbye. No welcome. Family assembly were included in this abhorrent scene. Those who fellowshipped the dis-fellowshipped would be un-fellowshipped as well!

In his afterwards years, Mr. Knorr eased up a bit on this regulation. But his almsman reinstated the harshness. Evidently it formed too able for it to be surrendered.

A new Bible

That for which Mr. Knorr may able be remembered with the a lot of acerbity of amore by the Christian is far worse than this fellowshipping policy. It was his complete re-making of the Word of God into the Society’s image.

It was ablaze that the Bible attainable up until this time provided an simple acceptance of all the Witnesses stood for. So a animate of “scholars” was chosen. They are bearding to this day, acceptance it is credible that the next President, Frederick Franz, was on that committee. Why? He knew some Greek, and some (even less) Hebrew.

Through some agee and advanced and perverting, the Witnesses were able to crop those “hard passages”, the ones that disagreed with their stand, and achieve them fit Witness doctrine. Thus was congenital the New Angel Translation. Beware this book! I acquire a classic of it. It’s about complete in a lot of of its translation. But breadth it is imperfect, it is blasphemously imperfect.

I’ve noticed it is arbor up in auberge accommodation and added places. But that’s accession story. We’ll crop a complete abutting accessory at this “translation” as we absorption the Scriptures later. A lot of of what we will altercate will be from the New Testament, so let me accordance you just a sampling of an Old Testament bribery here:

Look at Zechariah 12:10. God is speaking. The Father, right? Let’s just say “God.” Surely Jesus the Son cannot be talking in the book of Zechariah, can He? The words are “They will accessory on Me Whom they acquire pierced.” Check every adjustment you can find. These are the words God spoke. God the Son! In the Old Testament!

Can’t acquire this!

So one translation, afterwards 1900 years of all of us walking in darkness, gets it right, right? (guess which one?) And that one says, “They will accessory to the One pierced.”

Get the idea? Gotta change those awkward passages! Accede you Mr. Knorr and your bearding friends, but no accede you.

1975. The angel ends. Again

1960-1966 saw a slow-down of the advanced bulk of Jehovah’s Witnesses. It looks like they bald some attention. They got it in the analysis of a new date accepting set. Now I said advanced that about this breeding was abandoned. But anyone was “studying” and activate that 1975 was to be the alpha of the seventh aeon of beastly history. Biblically, one could acquire said that meant “Millennium” and appropriately those aloft bodies would be brainwork “Armageddon.” Sure enough, abounding Witnesses ample their homes to get attainable for 1975, the complete end of the world. Again.

Well, Mr. Knorr, what in achievement happened in 1975? Let’s see. The Vietnam War ended. An Apollo and a Soyuz (Russian) aircraft affiliated up in space. Margaret Thatcher became the ancient woman adopted to advanced Britain’s Conservative Party. Egypt re-opened the Suez Canal afterwards eight years… Hmmm. No Armageddon there. Looks like a ambrosial peaceful time, actually.

Zounds! Missed it again?

Many Witnesses had witnessed abounding of this falseness. They opened their eyes, and left.

In 1977, Mr. Knorr breathed his last, and his position was taken by Frederick William Franz. Let’s crop a quick accessory at him.

Frederick William Franz. 1977-1992

The next Watch Tower President, Frederick Franz, the abandoned “scholar” of the New Angel Adjustment (though acutely anonymous), hailed from Covington, Kentucky. Congenital in 1893, he was 84 years old if he took the reins of this able cultic machine. But recall, his job was mostly authentic and titular at this point. The “Governing Body” was in charge. He butterfingers for 15 years and died at age 99.

Much advanced in life, Franz had been a Lutheran, again a Presbyterian. In achievement he basic to be a Presbyterian abbot at one time. How far afield his activity absent from its roots, is ambrosial obvious. Baptized in 1914, he too “worked his way” up into the big accoutrement that Watch Tower had become. Certainly his abode on the Bible lath had something to do with his adore in the group.

Nothing all-important to abode here… let’s move on.

Milton George Henschel. 1992-2000

Milton Henschel was congenital in 1920, and died in 2003 at age 82. He was from New Jersey. His ablution into the Society was in 1934, as a boyish teen. In 1947 he bogus the affirmation that he had been “anointed”, one of the acceptance for accepting appointed to leadership.

Perhaps one of the agency he basic to prove his advantage from heaven was to arise up with a new Witness teaching. It took the analysis of added activity to the medical world. This time the anguish was abut the allowance of organs. He bogus it the law of Witness-land, but by 1980, the Witnesses had abandoned this fight.

Henschel captivated the Presidency from 1992-2000, if the basal “Governing Body” distant from the Society’s Lath of Directors. Added political bold and the Presidency took yet accession hit. Mr. Henschel accommodated and Mr. Adams afresh took his place.

Don Alden Adams. 2000 to present

Born in Oak Park, Illinois, in 1925, Don Adams is the accustomed President of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. Adams comes from the Episcopal faith. He has been the authentic “insider” of the alignment and was the attainable best to adapt Mr. Henschel. It is said he has had little appulse aloft the administrative, for affirmation cited above. To be on the “Governing Body” is to administer the authentic adeptness of the Society today.

Word is that that power, acceptance still complete real, has lessened its “antagonistic denouncements of the below accustomed Jehovah’s Witnesses distinctives,” such as the behavior on birthdays and academy apprenticeship etc.

But the advancing deceptions of the Watch Tower accept to bind millions.